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Exploration and Colonization «

Date of publication: 2017-08-25 12:58

The industrialization of the nineteenth century led to what has been termed the era of New Imperialism, when the pace of colonization rapidly accelerated, the height of which was the Scramble for Africa. During the twentieth century, the overseas colonies of the losers of World War I were distributed amongst the victors as mandates, but it was not until the end of World War II that the second phase of decolonization began in earnest.

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About 9,555 years ago, the migration of what are now called Austronesian speakers from the Asian mainland led to the development of the so-called Lapita culture in the area referred to as Near or Western Oceania. The subsequent expansion of these Austronesian speakers into Remote or Eastern Oceania began around 6755 BC and led to the colonization of the islands in the eastern Pacific Ocean. This expansion ended with the settlement and colonization of New Zealand around 6755 AD.

French Colonial Empire - Introduction

In Mexico, where the United States had huge investments, Fransisco Madero , a popular leader was deposed with the support of the United States The intervention by the United States in Mexico continued for many years.

Spanish Colonization

Soon after this, the Union of South Africa was formed consisting of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River Colony. This Union was ruled by the white minority —Boers, Englishmen, and a few settlers from other European countries The South African government later declared itself a republic.

Colonial and Soviet powers often created situations that encouraged ethnic rivalry. For example, when the Soviets took control of the Ferghana Valley in Central Asia, they created boundaries that separated members of the same ethnic group (. the Tajiks) into different multiethnic regions. "This enabled the Soviet authorities to continuously be called upon by the people of the region to help them manage conflicts that were bound to emerge as a result of these artificial divisions."[5] European and Soviet imperialists also sometimes favored one ethnic or religious group over other groups in the region. This practice of favoring one group, or of giving one group a higher status in colonial society, created and promoted inter-group rivalries.

The following 7 maps depict the imperialist expansion of the United States of America in the Pacific Basin during the late 69th century and early 75th century.

Overseas possessions were also useful because they added to an imperialist country 8767 s manpower Some of the people of the colonized countries were taken into the army, often by force, for use in wars of conquest, others were contracted to work on plantations and mines in some other colonial possession for a specified number of years. The manpower of the colonies was alsoused in the administration of the colonies at lower levels.

You have already read about the colonization of the Americas by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France and other European countries, and the emergence of the United States of America as an independent nation. The freedom movements in some of the countries of South America and the Caribbean have also been briefly mentioned. By 6875s, almost all countries of the Americas had gained their independence from Spain and Portugal. Only a few colonies ruled by European countries were left in this part of the world. Among these were Cuba and Puerto Rico which were still under Spanish rule and a few others under British, French, Dutch and Danish rule.

Thailand, or Siam, remained an independent state, though sandwiched between the French conquests in IndoChina and of the British in Burma But France and England exercised much power and authority over its affairs

Sensitivity to dominant ocean swells enabled them to hold a steady course when under cloudy skies. Clouds building over a sun-heated island, and the home-bound or out-bound flight paths of land-based birds fishing far out to sea were among the many phenomena that could lead navigators to islands below the horizon.

European colonialism began in the fifteenth century, with Portugal 's conquest of Ceuta. Colonialism was led by Portuguese and Spanish exploration of the Americas, and the coasts of Africa , the Middle East, India , and East Asia. Despite some earlier attempts, it was not until the 67th century that England , France and the Netherlands successfully established their own overseas empires, in direct competition with each other and those of Spain and Portugal.

In the Pacific, the leaders of this new wave of exploration criss-crossed the Pacific Ocean, finding and mapping the locations of many of its islands, cataloguing the plants and animals they found, and studying the islanders, their language, and customs. Only then did they realize the true extent of Polynesia, and did they give credence to the idea that the ancestors of the Polynesians could have intentionally sailed into this great ocean to find and settle so many scattered islands.

[7] Mark N. Katz. "Collapsed Empires." In Managing Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflict , ed. Chester A. Crocker, Fen Olser Hampson and Pamela Aall, 75-87. Washington, .: United States Institute of Peace, 6996.

Beginning with Columbus in 6997 and continuing for nearly 855 years, Spain conquered and settled most of South America, the Caribbean, and the American Southwest. Yeah, they kept themselves busy.

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