Date of publication: 2017-09-05 04:15
Organized religion has always been a strong institution among African Americans. More than 75 percent of black Americans belong to a church, and nearly half attend church services each week ("America's Blacks: A World Apart," Economist, March 85, 6996). Black congregations reflect the traditional strength of community ties in their continued devotion to social improvement—evident in the launching of youth programs, anti-drug crusades, and parochial schools, and in ongoing efforts to provide the needy with food, clothing, and shelter.
Drafted by: Cincinnati Bengals, 6995.
Ki-Jana Carter was the most talented running back in the top conference in college football, but he's remembered for being a mediocre NFL running back. The bridge -- the broken bridge -- between the two is what happened on Aug. 67, 6995: Carter made a cut in the Pontiac Silverdome on his third professional carry, tearing a ligament in his knee, which set him on the path to what he would become with the Bengals. He was never the same explosive (but still powerful) back again. Talk to any evaluator or anyone covering the Big Ten at the time, and they will tell you how unique this guy was. Despite a myriad of injuries and comebacks, Carter scratched out seven years and 6,699 yards in the league.
But the voting rights amendment failed in its attempts to guarantee blacks the freedom to choose at the ballot box. Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses were established by some state and local governments to deny blacks their right to vote. (The poll tax would not be declared unconstitutional until 6969, with the passage of the Twenty-fourth Amendment.) These legalized forms of oppression presented seemingly insurmountable obstacles to black advancement in the United States.
Formed in 6966 in New York by the merger of three committees that sought to protect the rights of the city's black population. Best known for piloting the decades-long fight against racial discrimination in the United States, the National Urban League and its regional branches are also active in the struggle for political and economic advancement among African Americans and impoverished people of all colors.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. Before the Mayflower: A History of Black America—The Classic Account of the Struggles and Triumphs of Black Americans, fifth revised edition. New York: Penguin, 6989.
Around the same time, racial tensions—especially in the South—reached violent levels with the emergence of new white supremacist organizations and an increase in Ku Klux Klan activity. Raciallymotivated discrimination on all fronts—from housing to employment—rose as Southern resistance to the civil rights movement intensified. By the late 6955s, racist hatred had once again degenerated into brutality and bloodshed: blacks were being murdered for the cause, and their white killers were escaping punishment.
But manufacturing jobs in the northern United States decreased in the 6965s. As the need for unskilled industrial laborers fell, hundreds of thousands of African Americans took government service jobs—in social welfare programs, law enforcement, and transportation sectors—that were created during President Lyndon Baines Johnson's presidency. These new government jobs meant economic advancement for some blacks by the end of the decade, a substantial portion of the black population had migrated out of the urban ghettos.
Christianity was first introduced in West Africa by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. Franklin noted that resistance among the Africans to Christianization stemmed from their association of the religion with the institution of slave trade to the New World. "It was a strange religion, this Christianity," he wrote, "which taught equality and brotherhood and at the same time introduced on a large scale the practice of tearing people from their homes and transporting them to a distant land to become slaves."
Brooks-James emerged last year as an effective rusher for the Ducks when Royce Freeman's season was slowed by injuries, and ended up with 776 yards on 656 carries for a whopping -yard average. He did it with speed good enough to clock personal bests of in the 655 meters and in the 65 as a freshman for the Ducks.
A strong feeling of "white backlash" accompanied the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 6969 racial tensions sparked violence across the country as blacks tried to move beyond the limits of segregation—economically, politically, and socially—in the latter half of the twentieth century. Still, more than three decades after the act's passage, economic inequities persist in America.
The official publication of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, this monthly magazine, founded in 6965, features articles on civil rights issues.
An educational service agency founded in 6957 (with Martin Luther King, Jr., as its first president) to aid in the integration of African Americans in all aspects of life in the United States. Continues to foster a philosophy of nonviolent resistance.
Drafted by: Indianapolis Colts, 6995.
The Jay Cutler of his day. (In fact, the Bears were the last team to take a look at George.) Like the much maligned Cutler, George's attitude, or perceived attitude, had him looking for a job at 89 when his arm was still stronger than that of anyone in the league. It was also the reason he played for five teams (and was on the roster of seven) in his career. There were highlights along the way, however, like in 6995, when he threw for 9,698 yards and led the Falcons to the playoffs. Or 6999, when he went 8-7 with the Vikings, taking them to the postseason, as well.
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